EARTHQUAKE- Sambal member upload

Earthquakes are considered as one of the most dangerous, destructive, and unpredictable natural disasters. Throughout the centuries, millions of people and thousands of structures have perished in earthquakes all over the world.

Original Source / Author: BSDMA,BIHAR 08 Jan, 2018
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Active Fault:  One that has moved once or more times in the past 10,000 years and therefore 
likely to move sometime in the future. 
Main shock: The biggest earthquake in a series  
Aftershock: Smaller earthquakes that occur after the main earthquake in the same place as the 
main shock. Aftershocks can continue for many weeks, months or years. 
Foreshocks: These are smaller earthquakes in the same area as the following larger earthquake. 
Until the larger earthquake hits scientists are unable to predict if they are foreshocks. 
Peak Acceleration: The highest acceleration during an earthquake  
PGA: The maximum acceleration amplitude measured or expected in a strong-motion 
accelerogram of an earthquake.  
Seismicity: A geographic and historical distribution of earthquakes. A term to quantify the 
space, time, and magnitude of earthquake occurrences.  
Seismograph: It is a very sensitive instrument that can detect, measure and record ground 
vibrations and their intensities during an earthquake. 
Seismic Zone: Seismic zones are areas defined on a map within which seismic design 
requirements are constant. 
Focus or Hypocenter: The point of rupture that is located near the surface or deep below it. 
Epicenter: The point on the surface vertically above the focus. 

The damage due to earthquake is maximum at the epicenter. Earthquake related damages 
can be roughly divided into ground motion, physical and structural damages and other hazards.

Disaster Risk  
Disaster risk is a function of the hazard, the vulnerability and the exposed elements, and 
changing each of these dimensions also will change the risk (Lugeri et. al, 2010). The United 
Nations provides definitions of certain parameters to explain how risk is assessed (Montoya, 
2002) as follows: 
Natural hazard (H) determination involves the estimation of the probability of occurrence, 
within a specific period in a given area, of a potentially damaging natural phenomenon. The 
disciplines concerned are earth and atmospheric science. 
Vulnerability (V) determination involves the estimation of the degree of loss suffered by a 
given element at risk or a set of such elements, resulting from the occurrence of a natural 
phenomenon of a given magnitude and expressed on a scale from zero measuring no damage to 
one measuring total damage. The disciplines concerned are human geography, construction 
engineering, etc. 


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